THE COMPLETE PRACTICAL ON SOAPS PRODUCTION

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THE COMPLETE PRACTICAL ON SOAPS PRODUCTION

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NGN4,500/$70
 

   SOAPS                                                                          

Soaps and detergents belong to the same group of chemical products called surface active agents or surfactants.These groups of products are among other properties,well -known for their detergency which is due to a reduction in water surface tension which remove  the dirt by wetting,emulsification,lathering and removal.

Soaps generally are produced through a reaction know as saponification.This reaction occurs when fats  and oil  are hydrolised in alkaline (basic) solution.In other  words it is alkaline hydrolysis of fats and oil.The result of this is the formation of glycerol and salts of the fatty acids.The  sodium or potassium salts formed is the soap.

                                                         LAUNDRY AND BAR SOAP

 

Laundry and bar soaps production process is divided in to four major steps.But first we  look  at the  apparatus,chemicals, method and formation.

(a)APPARATUS

This refers to the machine and equipment needed for the production of  soap,which  cannot be avoided.

(b) CHEMICAL

It includes all the inorganic materials(chemiicals) needed for the production of laundry and bar soap .These substance are combined together in  soap formation .

(c) METHOD

This is the process to undergo during manufacturing through human  effort.It includes how all the  machines are put to use and the application  of  various chemicals to form soap.

(d) FORMULATION

This means the required percentages of the various chemicals needed  of the production of laundry soap .The work of  formation is at the time  referred to as formula.For easy understanding,we prefer to convert percentage  to ratio.

 

The cleansing activity of soap could be  explained in terms of its molecule structure.Actually water can wash  off some thingwith out application of  soap.For instance  if  a  sticky sugar syrup is poured on somebody's hand , water is used  to wash  it off ,the sugar dissolves in the water  and is rinsed off.If  there is a case where  oil is poured,water used  to  wash it will just run off the surface of the oil.Other dirt though not oil could form greasy film together  over the skin or clothes (as case may be) there by making it difficult for the water to wash  off . When soap solution  is applied to a grease -coated piece of fabric ,the soap molecules  first approach the  grease spot  at the  inter-phase  of  the grease  and water.The hydrophobic(water hating)tail of the soap particles dissolves in the grease while  the hydrophilic (water loving) head dissolves in the water .The water molecules  attract the polar  ionic heads of the soap  molecules .This action helps to lift the grease spot upwards, enabling more soap particles to dissolve in the grease .

Eventually with mechanical  scrubbing, the  grease patch is emulsified.On rinsing the fabric ,the grease is removed.

                                                               TOILET  SOAP

DEFINITION

Soap  is a cleansing agent,so toilet  soap  is therefore  substance  used  in cleaning our body.As the skin is sensitive  and delicate,this soap is formulated with less chemical concentration such that the product  is mild to the body.The  equipment and chemicals are slightly different from those  of laundry and bar soap.

                                               MEDICATED  SOAP

Medicated soap exists in various forms.The difference is based  mainly on the chemical compoation; i.e. the type  of active  ingredients that are employed in the soap  manufacture.However , any brand of medicated soap possesses some medicated function,hence the name  "medicated soap".

 

Essentially the manufacturing or processing techniques are similar to those of toilet or laundry and bar soaps.The first chemical change  is the saponification process.Here, the  free fatty acid  constituent of the oil  hydrolyzed by the sodium hydroxide  or caustic soda solution to  give crude soap.In more  advanced  processing  methods, the free fatty acid is separated from  the glycerol by hydrosing the oil with caustic soda, which is   called saponification.It is pure in quality since  the glycerol content  of the solution  has been removed from the  soap.This is common though hot system (process).

 

The quality and  performance of  the  soap is enhanced by  the incorporation of  a number of various types of active ingredients,which are intended for specific effect or functions.

ANTISEPTIC  SOAP

The  antiseptic soap  which is a  toilet soap has minimal amount of free  base,if any  often much of the qlycerol  released in the saponification is left in the soap Medicated agents are the major difference in this soap.  

The soap can be used for regular bathing,pricking heat,some skin infection,pimples and general personal hygiene .For the purpose of skin infection and pimples,it could be wetted and rubbed over the affected area.Allowed to stay for about 5 minutes before washing off.For maximum result,it should be  done morning and night.TCC is a powerful antiseptic and is capable of controlling pathogenic bacterial flora on the skin.The concentration added is quite safe.

DETERGENT

INTRODUCTION:

The word detergent literally means something which cleans,Detergents are substances which act with water to make  things clean.It can be in form of tablets,powders and liquids.

Detergents fall into two main categories .They are soapy and non soapy  detergents.The second major category is that  of soapless detergents,manufactured chiefly in form of washing  powders and liquids for clothes,dishes and other household articles.

The majority of soapless detergents are based  on petrol chemicals  derived from mineral oils  and reacted with sulphuric acid,a process known as sulphonation.

Why are detergents necessary.

Many people may wonder why detergents are necessary  at all.Surely water by itself is sufficient to get things clean.The answer is that water by itself is not an efficient washer.It gets things clean at the end,but only after lot of time and energy have been spent.

LIQUID SOAP

Detergent is formulated to exist  in this  form.The  objective of  cleansing and the  mechanism of  the liquid detergent remain  essentially the same as the  solid or powder  one.

The base of the  product is  water .The  amount  of  water  required for a given volume of  detergent is relatively high.Suffice to state a good source of water supply is important at the project site.

  TILE  CLEANER

 

 

 

Product Code8KI5L94
ConditionNew

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